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  10 .TH FNMATCH 3C "Jun 6, 2015"
  11 .SH NAME
  12 fnmatch \- match filename or path name
  14 .LP
  15 .nf
  16 #include <fnmatch.h>
  18 \fBint\fR \fBfnmatch\fR(\fBconst char *\fR\fIpattern\fR, \fBconst char *\fR\fIstring\fR, \fBint\fR \fIflags\fR);
  19 .fi
  22 .sp
  23 .LP
  24 The \fBfnmatch()\fR function matches patterns as described on the
  25 \fBfnmatch\fR(5) manual page.  It checks the \fIstring\fR argument to see if it
  26 matches the \fIpattern\fR argument.
  27 .sp
  28 .LP
  29 The \fIflags\fR argument modifies the interpretation of \fIpattern\fR and
  30 \fIstring\fR. It is the bitwise inclusive \fBOR\fR of zero or more of the
  31 following flags defined in the header <\fBfnmatch.h\fR>.
  32 .sp
  33 .ne 2
  34 .na
  35 \fB\fBFNM_PATHNAME\fR  \fR
  36 .ad
  37 .RS 18n
  38 If set, a slash (\fB/\fR) character in \fIstring\fR will be explicitly matched
  39 by a slash in \fIpattern\fR; it will not be matched by either the asterisk
  40 (\fB*\fR) or question-mark (\fB?\fR) special characters, nor by a bracket
  41 (\fB[\|]\fR) expression.
  42 .sp
  43 If not set, the slash character is treated as an ordinary character.
  44 .RE
  46 .sp
  47 .ne 2
  48 .na
  50 .ad
  51 .RS 18n
  52 If set, the \fIstring\fR will be transliterated to lower case before doing the
  53 actual match. This transliteration is done using \fBtowlower_l\fR(3C), using
  54 the locale of the current thread. If no locale is set, then the global locale
  55 is used instead.
  56 .sp
  57 If not set, the match will use \fIstring\fR with no changes, making the match
  58 case-sensitive.
  59 .RE
  61 .sp
  62 .ne 2
  63 .na
  65 .ad
  66 .RS 18n
  67 If not set, a backslash character (\fB\e\fR) in \fIpattern\fR followed by any
  68 other character will match that second character in \fIstring\fR. In
  69 particular, "\fB\e\e\fR" will match a backslash in \fIstring\fR.
  70 .sp
  71 If set, a backslash character will be treated as an ordinary character.
  72 .RE
  74 .sp
  75 .ne 2
  76 .na
  77 \fB\fBFNM_PERIOD\fR\fR
  78 .ad
  79 .RS 18n
  80 If set, a leading period in \fIstring\fR will match a period in \fIpattern\fR;
  81 where the location of "leading" is indicated by the value of
  83 .RS +4
  84 .TP
  85 .ie t \(bu
  86 .el o
  87 If \fBFNM_PATHNAME\fR is set, a period is "leading" if it is the first
  88 character in \fIstring\fR or if it immediately follows a slash.
  89 .RE
  90 .RS +4
  91 .TP
  92 .ie t \(bu
  93 .el o
  94 If \fBFNM_PATHNAME\fR is not set, a period is "leading" only if it is the first
  95 character of \fIstring\fR.
  96 .RE
  97 .RE
  99 .sp
 100 .RS 18n
 101 If not set, no special restrictions are placed on matching a period.
 103 .sp
 104 .LP
 105 If \fIstring\fR matches the pattern specified by \fIpattern\fR, then
 106 \fBfnmatch()\fR returns \fB0\fR. If there is no match, \fBfnmatch()\fR returns
 107 \fBFNM_NOMATCH\fR, which is defined in the header <\fBfnmatch.h\fR>. If an
 108 error occurs, \fBfnmatch()\fR returns another non-zero value.
 109 .SH USAGE
 110 .sp
 111 .LP
 112 The \fBfnmatch()\fR function has two major uses. It could be used by an
 113 application or utility that needs to read a directory and apply a pattern
 114 against each entry. The \fBfind\fR(1) utility is an example of this. It can
 115 also be used by the \fBpax\fR(1) utility to process its \fIpattern\fR operands,
 116 or by applications that need to match strings in a similar manner.
 117 .sp
 118 .LP
 119 The name \fBfnmatch()\fR is intended to imply \fIfilename\fR match, rather than
 120 \fIpathname\fR match. The default action of this function is to match
 121 filenames, rather than path names, since it gives no special significance to
 122 the slash character. With the \fBFNM_PATHNAME\fR flag, \fBfnmatch()\fR does
 123 match path names, but without tilde expansion, parameter expansion, or special
 124 treatment for period at the beginning of a filename.
 125 .sp
 126 .LP
 127 The \fBfnmatch()\fR function can be used safely in multithreaded applications,
 128 as long as \fBsetlocale\fR(3C) is not being called to change the locale.
 130 .sp
 131 .LP
 132 See \fBattributes\fR(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:
 133 .sp
 135 .sp
 136 .TS
 137 box;
 138 c | c
 139 l | l .
 141 _
 142 CSI     Enabled
 143 _
 144 Interface Stability     Standard
 145 _
 146 MT-Level        MT-Safe with exceptions
 147 .TE
 150 .sp
 151 .LP
 152 \fBfind\fR(1), \fBpax\fR(1), \fBglob\fR(3C), \fBsetlocale\fR(3C),
 153 \fBwordexp\fR(3C), \fBattributes\fR(5), \fBfnmatch\fR(5), \fBstandards\fR(5)