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   7 .TH FILESYNC 1 "Sep 8, 2015"
   8 .SH NAME
   9 filesync \- synchronize ordinary, directory or special files
  11 .LP
  12 .nf
  13 \fBfilesync\fR [\fB-aehmnqvy\fR] [\fB-o\fR src | dst]
  14      [\fB-f\fR src | dst | old | new] [\fB-r\fR \fIdirectory\fR]...
  15 .fi
  17 .LP
  18 .nf
  19 \fBfilesync\fR [\fB-aehmnqvy\fR] \fB-s\fR \fIsource-dir\fR \fB-d\fR \fIdest-dir\fR \fIfilename\fR...
  20 .fi
  23 .LP
  24 The \fBfilesync\fR utility \fIsynchronizes\fR files between multiple computer
  25 systems, typically a server and a portable computer. \fBfilesync\fR
  26 synchronizes ordinary, directory or special files. Although intended for use on
  27 nomadic systems, \fBfilesync\fR is useful for backup and file replication on
  28 more permanently connected systems.
  29 .sp
  30 .LP
  31 If files are synchronized between systems, the corresponding files on each of
  32 the systems are \fIidentical\fR. Changing a file on one or both of the systems
  33 causes the files to become different (not synchronized). In order to make the
  34 files identical again, the differences between the files must be
  35 \fIreconciled\fR. See \fBReconciling and Synchronizing Files\fR  for specific
  36 details about how \fBfilesync\fR reconciles and synchronizes files.
  37 .sp
  38 .LP
  39 There are two forms of the \fBfilesync\fR command. The first form of
  40 \fBfilesync\fR is invoked without file arguments. This form of \fBfilesync\fR
  41 reconciles differences between the files and systems specified in the
  42 \fB$HOME/.packingrules\fR file. \fB$HOME/.packingrules\fR is a packing rules
  43 list for \fBfilesync\fR and contains a list of files to
  44 be kept synchronized. See \fBpackingrules\fR(4).
  45 .sp
  46 .LP
  47 The second form of \fBfilesync\fR copies specific files from a directory on the
  48 source system to a directory on the destination system. In addition, this form
  49 of \fBfilesync\fR adds the file or files specified as arguments
  50 (\fIfilename\fR) to \fB$HOME/.packingrules\fR. See \fB-s\fR and \fB-d\fR for
  51 information about specifying directories on source and destination systems. See
  52 \fBOPERANDS\fR for details about specifying file (\fIfilename\fR) arguments.
  53 .sp
  54 .LP
  55 Multiple \fBfilesync\fR commands are cumulative (that is, the specified files
  56 are added to the already existing packing rules file list). See \fBMultiple
  57 filesync Commands\fR.
  58 .SS "Reconciling and Synchronizing Files"
  59 .LP
  60 \fBfilesync\fR synchronizes files between computer systems by performing the
  61 following two tasks:
  62 .RS +4
  63 .TP
  64 1.
  65 \fBfilesync\fR examines the directories and files specified in the packing
  66 rules file on both systems, and determines whether or not they are identical.
  67 Any file that differs requires reconciliation.
  68 .sp
  69 \fBfilesync\fR also maintains a baseline summary in the
  70 \fB$HOME/.filesync-base\fR file for all of the files that are being monitored.
  71 This file lists the names, types, and sizes of all files as of the last
  72 reconciliation.
  73 .RE
  74 .RS +4
  75 .TP
  76 2.
  77 Based on the information contained in the baseline file and the specified
  78 options (see  \fBResolving filesync Conflicts\fR), \fBfilesync\fR determines
  79 which of the various copies is the correct one, and makes the corresponding
  80 changes to the other system. Once this has been done, the two copies are,
  81 again, identical (synchronized).
  82 .sp
  83 If a source file has changed and the destination file has not, the changes on
  84 the source system are propagated to the destination system. If a destination
  85 file has changed and the corresponding source file has not, the changes on the
  86 destination file are propagated to the source system. If both systems have
  87 changed (and the files are not still identical) a warning message will be
  88 printed out, asking the user to resolve the conflict manually. See
  89 \fBResolving filesync Conflicts\fR.
  90 .RE
  91 .SS "Resolving filesync Conflicts"
  92 .LP
  93 In cases where files on both sides have changed,  \fBfilesync\fR attempts to
  94 determine which version should be chosen. If  \fBfilesync\fR cannot
  95 automatically determine which version should be selected, it prints out a
  96 warning message and leaves the two incompatible versions of the file
  97 unreconciled.
  98 .LP
  99 In these cases, you must either resolve the differences manually, or tell
 100 \fBfilesync\fR how to choose which file should win. Use the  \fB-o\fR and
 101 \fB-f\fR options to tell  \fBfilesync\fR how to resolve conflicts (see
 102 \fBOPTIONS\fR).
 103 .LP
 104 Alternatively, for each conflicting file, you can examine the two versions,
 105 determine which one should be kept, and manually bring the two versions into
 106 agreement (by copying, deleting, or changing the ownership or protection to be
 107 correct). You can then re-run  \fBfilesync\fR to see whether or not any other
 108 conflicts remain.
 109 .SS "Packing Rules File"
 110 .LP
 111 The packing rules file \fB$HOME/.packingrules\fR contains a list of files to be
 112 kept synchronized. The syntax of this file is described in
 113 \fBpackingrules\fR(4).
 114 .LP
 115 The \fB$HOME/.packingrules\fR file is automatically created if users invoke
 116 \fBfilesync\fR with filename arguments. By using \fBfilesync\fR options, users
 117 can augment the packing rules in \fB$HOME/.packingrules\fR.
 118 .LP
 119 Many users choose to create the packing rules file manually and edit it by
 120 hand. Users can edit \fB$HOME/.packingrules\fR (using any editor) to
 121 permanently change the  \fB$HOME/.packingrules\fR file, or to gain access to
 122 more powerful options  that are not available from the command line (such as
 123 \fBIGNORE\fR commands). It is much easier to enter complex wildcard expressions
 124 by editing the \fB$HOME/.packingrules\fR file.
 125 .SS "Baseline File"
 126 .LP
 127 \fB$HOME/.filesync-base\fR is the \fBfilesync\fR baseline summary file.
 128 \fBfilesync\fR uses the information in \fB$HOME/.filesync-base\fR to identify
 129 the differences between files during the reconciliation and synchronization
 130 process. Users do not create or edit the baseline file. It is created
 131 automatically by \fBfilesync\fR and records the last known state of  agreement
 132 between all of the files being maintained.
 133 .SS "Multiple filesync Commands"
 134 .LP
 135 Over a period of time, the set of files you want to keep synchronized can
 136 change. It is common, for instance, to want to keep files pertaining to only a
 137 few active projects on your notebook. If you continue to keep files associated
 138 with every project you have ever worked on synchronized, your notebook's disk
 139 will fill up with old files. Each  \fBfilesync\fR command will waste a lot of
 140 time updating files you no longer care about.
 141 .LP
 142 If you delete the files from your notebook, \fBfilesync\fR will want to perform
 143 the corresponding deletes on the server, which would not be what you wanted.
 144 Rather, you would like a way to tell \fBfilesync\fR to stop synchronizing some
 145 of the files. There are two ways to do this:
 146 .RS +4
 147 .TP
 148 1.
 149 Edit  \fB$HOME/.packingrules\fR. Delete the rules for the files that you
 150 want to delete.
 151 .RE
 152 .RS +4
 153 .TP
 154 2.
 155 Delete \fB$HOME/.packingrules\fR. Use the  \fBfilesync\fR command to specify
 156 the files that you want synchronized.
 157 .RE
 158 .LP
 159 Either way works, and you can choose the one that seems easiest to you. For
 160 minor changes, it is probably easier to just edit \fB$HOME/.packingrules\fR.
 161 For major changes it is probably easier to start from scratch.
 162 .LP
 163 Once  \fBfilesync\fR is no longer synchronizing a set of files, you can delete
 164 them from your notebook without having any effect on the server.
 165 .SS "Nomadic Machines"
 166 .LP
 167 When using \fBfilesync\fR to keep files synchronized between nomadic machines
 168 and a server, store the packing rules and baseline files on the nomadic
 169 machines, not the server. If, when logged into your notebook, the \fBHOME\fR
 170 environment variable does not normally point to a directory on your notebook,
 171 you can use the \fBFILESYNC\fR environment variable to specify an alternate
 172 location for the packing rules and baseline files.
 173 .LP
 174 Each nomadic machine should carry its own packing rules and baseline file.
 175 Incorrect file synchronization can result if a server carries a baseline file
 176 and multiple nomadic machines attempt to reconcile against the server's
 177 baseline file. In this case, a nomadic machine could be using a baseline file
 178 that does not accurately describe the state of its files. This might result in
 179 incorrect reconciliations.
 180 .LP
 181 To safeguard against the dangers associated with a single  baseline file being
 182 shared by more than two machines,  \fBfilesync\fR adds a default rule to each
 183 new packing rules file. This default rule prevents the  packing rules and
 184 baseline files from being copied.
 186 .LP
 187 The following options are supported:
 188 .sp
 189 .ne 2
 190 .na
 191 \fB\fB-a\fR\fR
 192 .ad
 193 .RS 28n
 194 Force the checking of Access Control Lists (\fBACL\fRs )  and attempt to make
 195 them agree for all new and changed files. If it is not possible to set the
 196 \fBACL\fR for a particular file, \fBfilesync\fR stops \fBACL\fR synchronization
 197 for that file.
 198 .sp
 199 Some file systems do not support \fBACL\fRs . It is not possible to synchronize
 200 \fBACL\fRs between file systems that support \fBACL\fRs and those that do not;
 201 attempting to do so will result in numerous error messages.
 202 .RE
 204 .sp
 205 .ne 2
 206 .na
 207 \fB\fB-d\fR\fI dest-dir\fR\fR
 208 .ad
 209 .RS 28n
 210 Specify the directory on the destination system into which \fIfilename\fR is to
 211 be copied. Use with the \fB-s\fR\fI source-dir\fR option and the \fIfilename\fR
 212 operand. See \fB-s\fR and  \fBOPERANDS\fR.
 213 .RE
 215 .sp
 216 .ne 2
 217 .na
 218 \fB\fB-e\fR\fR
 219 .ad
 220 .RS 28n
 221 Flag all differences. It may not be possible to resolve all conflicts involving
 222 modes and ownership (unless \fBfilesync\fR is being run with root privileges).
 223 If you cannot change the ownership or protections on a file, \fBfilesync\fR
 224 will normally ignore conflicts in ownership and protection. If you specify the
 225 \fB-e\fR (everything must agree) flag, however, \fBfilesync\fR will flag these
 226 differences.
 227 .RE
 229 .sp
 230 .ne 2
 231 .na
 232 \fB\fB\fR\fB-f\fR\fB src\fR | \fBdst\fR | \fBold\fR | \fBnew\fR\fR
 233 .ad
 234 .RS 28n
 235 The \fB-f\fR option tells \fBfilesync\fR how to resolve conflicting changes. If
 236 a file has been changed on both systems, and an \fB-f\fR option has been
 237 specified, \fBfilesync\fR will retain the changes made on the favored system
 238 and discard the changes made on the unfavored system.
 239 .sp
 240 Specify \fB-f\fR \fBsrc\fR to favor the  source-system file. Specify \fB-f\fR
 241 \fBdst\fR to favor the destination-system file. Specify \fB-f\fR \fBold\fR to
 242 favor the older version of the file. Specify \fB-f\fR \fBnew\fR to favor the
 243 newer version of the file.
 244 .sp
 245 It is possible to specify the  \fB-f\fR and  \fB-o\fR options in combination
 246 if they both specify the same preference  (\fBsrc \fRand\fB dst\fR). If
 247 \fB-f\fR and  \fB-o\fR conflict, the  \fB-f\fR option is ignored. See the
 248 \fB-o\fR option description.
 249 .RE
 251 .sp
 252 .ne 2
 253 .na
 254 \fB\fB-h\fR\fR
 255 .ad
 256 .RS 28n
 257 Halt on error. Normally, if \fBfilesync\fR encounters a read or write error
 258 while copying files, it notes the error and the program continues, in an
 259 attempt to reconcile other files. If the \fB-h\fR option is specified,
 260 \fBfilesync\fR will immediately halt when one of these errors occurs and will
 261 not try to process any more files.
 262 .RE
 264 .sp
 265 .ne 2
 266 .na
 267 \fB\fB-m\fR\fR
 268 .ad
 269 .RS 28n
 270 Ensure that both copies of the file have the same modification time. The
 271 modification time for newly copied files is set to the time of reconciliation
 272 by default. File changes are ordered by increasing modification times so that
 273 the propagated files have the same relative modification time ordering as the
 274 original changes. Users should be warned that there is usually some time skew
 275 between  any two systems, and transferring modification times from one system
 276 to another can occasionally produce strange results.
 277 .sp
 278 There are instances in which using \fBfilesync\fR to update some (but not all)
 279 files in a directory will confuse the  \fBmake\fR program. If, for instance,
 280 \fBfilesync\fR is keeping  \fB\&.c\fR files synchronized, but ignoring
 281 \fB\&.o\fR files, a changed  \fB\&.c\fR file may show up with a modification
 282 time prior to a  \fB\&.o\fR file that was built from a prior version of the
 283 \fB\&.c\fR file.
 284 .RE
 286 .sp
 287 .ne 2
 288 .na
 289 \fB\fB-n\fR\fR
 290 .ad
 291 .RS 28n
 292 Do not really make the changes. If the  \fB-n\fR option is specified,
 293 \fBfilesync\fR determines what changes have been made to files, and what
 294 reconciliations are required and displays this information on the standard
 295 output. No changes are made to files, including the packing rules file.
 296 .sp
 297 Specifying both the \fB-n\fR and \fB-o\fR options causes \fBfilesync\fR to
 298 analyze the prevailing system and report the changes that have been made on
 299 that system. Using \fB-n\fR and \fB-o\fR in combination is useful if your
 300 machine is disconnected (and you cannot access the server) but you want to know
 301 what changes have been made on the local machine. See the \fB-o\fR option
 302 description.
 303 .RE
 305 .sp
 306 .ne 2
 307 .na
 308 \fB\fB\fR\fB-o\fR\fB src | dst\fR\fR
 309 .ad
 310 .RS 28n
 311 The \fB-o\fR option forces a one-way reconciliation, favoring either the source
 312 system (\fBsrc\fR) or destination system (\fBdst\fR).
 313 .sp
 314 Specify \fB-o\fR \fBsrc\fR to propagate changes only from the source system to
 315 the destination system. Changes made on the destination system are ignored.
 316 \fBfilesync\fR aborts if it cannot access a source or destination directory.
 317 .sp
 318 Specify \fB-o\fR \fBdst\fR to propagate changes only from the destination
 319 system to the source system. Changes made on the source system are ignored.
 320 \fBfilesync\fR aborts if it cannot access a source or destination directory.
 321 .sp
 322 Specifying \fB-n\fR with the \fB-o\fR option causes \fBfilesync\fR to analyze
 323 the prevailing system and reports on what changes have been made on that
 324 system. Using \fB-n\fR and \fB-o\fR in combination is useful if a machine is
 325 disconnected (and there is no access to the server), but you want to know what
 326 changes have been made on the local machine. See the \fB-n\fR option
 327 description.
 328 .sp
 329 It is possible to specify the \fB-o\fR and \fB-f\fR options in combination if
 330 they both specify the same preference (\fBsrc\fR or \fBdst\fR). If \fB-o\fR and
 331 \fB-f\fR options conflict, the \fB-f\fR option will be ignored. See the
 332 \fB-f\fR option description.
 333 .RE
 335 .sp
 336 .ne 2
 337 .na
 338 \fB\fB-q\fR\fR
 339 .ad
 340 .RS 28n
 341 Suppress the standard \fBfilesync\fR messages that describe each reconciliation
 342 action as it is performed.
 343 .sp
 344 The standard \fBfilesync\fR message describes each reconciliation action in the
 345 form of a UNIX shell command (for example, \fBmv\fR, \fBln\fR, \fBcp\fR,
 346 \fBrm\fR, \fBchmod\fR, \fBchown\fR, \fBchgrp\fR, \fBsetfacl\fR, and so forth).
 347 .RE
 349 .sp
 350 .ne 2
 351 .na
 352 \fB\fB-r\fR\fI directory\fR\fR
 353 .ad
 354 .RS 28n
 355 Limit the reconciliation to  \fIdirectory\fR. Specify multiple directories with
 356 multiple \fB-r\fR specifications.
 357 .RE
 359 .sp
 360 .ne 2
 361 .na
 362 \fB\fB-s\fR\fI source-dir\fR\fR
 363 .ad
 364 .RS 28n
 365 Specify the directory on the source system from which the  \fIfilename\fR to be
 366 copied is located. Use with the  \fB-d\fR\fI dest-dir\fR option and the
 367 \fIfilename\fR operand. See the \fB-d\fR option description and
 368 \fBOPERANDS\fR.
 369 .RE
 371 .sp
 372 .ne 2
 373 .na
 374 \fB\fB-v\fR\fR
 375 .ad
 376 .RS 28n
 377 Display additional information about each file comparison as it is made on the
 378 standard output.
 379 .RE
 381 .sp
 382 .ne 2
 383 .na
 384 \fB\fB-y\fR\fR
 385 .ad
 386 .RS 28n
 387 Bypass safety check prompts. Nomadic machines occasionally move between
 388 domains, and many of the files on which \fBfilesync\fR operates are expected to
 389 be accessed by NFS. There is a danger that someday  \fBfilesync\fR will be
 390 asked to reconcile local changes against the wrong file system or server. This
 391 could result in a large number of inappropriate copies and deletions. To
 392 prevent such a mishap,  \fBfilesync\fR performs a few safety checks prior to
 393 reconciliation. If large numbers of files are likely to  be deleted, or if high
 394 level directories have changed their I-node numbers,  \fBfilesync\fR prompts
 395 for a confirmation before reconciliation. If you know that this is likely, and
 396 do not want to be prompted, use the \fB-y\fR (yes) option to automatically
 397 confirm these prompts.
 398 .RE
 401 .LP
 402 The following operands are supported:
 403 .sp
 404 .ne 2
 405 .na
 406 \fB\fIfilename\fR\fR
 407 .ad
 408 .RS 12n
 409 The name of the ordinary file, directory, symbolic link, or special file in the
 410 specified source directory (\fIsource-dir\fR) to be synchronized. Specify
 411 multiple files by separating each filename by spaces. Use the \fIfilename\fR
 412 operand with the \fB-s\fR and \fB-d\fR options. See  \fBOPTIONS\fR.
 413 .sp
 414 If \fIfilename\fR is an ordinary file, that ordinary file will be replicated
 415 (with the same \fIfilename\fR) in the specified destination directory
 416 (\fIdest-dir\fR).
 417 .sp
 418 If \fIfilename\fR is a directory, that directory and all of the files and
 419 subdirectories under it will be replicated (recursively) in the specified
 420 destination directory (\fIdest-dir\fR).
 421 .sp
 422 If  \fIfilename\fR is a symbolic link, a copy of that symbolic link will be
 423 replicated in the specified destination directory (\fIdest-dir\fR).
 424 .sp
 425 If \fIfilename\fR is a special file, a special file with the same major or
 426 minor device numbers will be replicated in the specified destination directory.
 427 (\fIdest-dir).\fR Only super-users can use \fBfilesync\fR to create special
 428 files.
 429 .sp
 430 Files created in the destination directory (\fIdest-dir\fR) will have the same
 431 owner, group and other permissions as the files in the source directory.
 432 .sp
 433 If \fIfilename\fR contains escaped shell wildcard characters, the wildcard
 434 characters are stored in \fB$HOME/.packingrules\fR and evaluated each time
 435 \fBfilesync\fR is run.
 436 .sp
 437 For example, the following would make sure that the two specified files,
 438 currently in \fB$RHOME\fR, were replicated in  \fB$HOME\fR:
 439 .sp
 440 .in +2
 441 .nf
 442 \fBfilesync \fR\fB-s\fR\fB $RHOME  \fR\fB-d\fR\fB $HOME a.c \|b.c\fR
 443 .fi
 444 .in -2
 445 .sp
 447 The following example would ensure that all of the \fB*.c\fR files in
 448 \fB$RHOME\fR were replicated in  \fB$HOME\fR, even if those files were not
 449 created until later.
 450 .sp
 451 .in +2
 452 .nf
 453 \fBfilesync \fR\fB-s\fR\fB $RHOME \fR\fB-d\fR\fB $HOME '*.c'\fR
 454 .fi
 455 .in -2
 456 .sp
 458 If any of the destination files already exist,  \fBfilesync\fR ensures that
 459 they are identical and issues warnings if they are not.
 460 .sp
 461 Once files have been copied, the distinction between the source and destination
 462 is a relatively arbitrary  one (except for its use in the \fB-o\fR and \fB-f\fR
 463 switches).
 464 .RE
 467 .ne 2
 468 .na
 469 \fB\fBFILESYNC\fR\fR
 470 .ad
 471 .RS 15n
 472 Specifies the default location of the \fBfilesync\fR packing rules and baseline
 473 files. The default value for this variable is \fB$HOME\fR. The suffixes
 474 \fB\&.packingrules\fR and \fB\&.filesync-base\fR will be appended to form the
 475 names of the packing rules and baseline files.
 476 .RE
 478 .sp
 479 .ne 2
 480 .na
 481 \fB\fBLC_MESSAGES\fR\fR
 482 .ad
 483 .RS 15n
 484 Determines how diagnostic and informative messages are presented. In the "C"
 485 locale, the messages are presented in the default form found in the program
 486 itself (in most cases, U.S. English).
 487 .RE
 490 .LP
 491 Normally, if all files are already up-to-date, or if all files were
 492 successfully reconciled, \fBfilesync\fR will exit with a status of \fB0\fR.
 493 However, if either the \fB-n\fR option was specified or any errors occurred,
 494 the exit status will be the logical OR of the following:
 495 .sp
 496 .ne 2
 497 .na
 498 \fB\fB0\fR\fR
 499 .ad
 500 .RS 7n
 501 No conflicts, all files up to date.
 502 .RE
 504 .sp
 505 .ne 2
 506 .na
 507 \fB\fB1\fR\fR
 508 .ad
 509 .RS 7n
 510 Some resolvable conflicts.
 511 .RE
 513 .sp
 514 .ne 2
 515 .na
 516 \fB\fB2\fR\fR
 517 .ad
 518 .RS 7n
 519 Some conflicts requiring manual resolution.
 520 .RE
 522 .sp
 523 .ne 2
 524 .na
 525 \fB\fB4\fR\fR
 526 .ad
 527 .RS 7n
 528 Some specified files did not exist.
 529 .RE
 531 .sp
 532 .ne 2
 533 .na
 534 \fB\fB8\fR\fR
 535 .ad
 536 .RS 7n
 537 Insufficient permission for some files.
 538 .RE
 540 .sp
 541 .ne 2
 542 .na
 543 \fB\fB16\fR\fR
 544 .ad
 545 .RS 7n
 546 Errors accessing packing rules or baseline file.
 547 .RE
 549 .sp
 550 .ne 2
 551 .na
 552 \fB\fB32\fR\fR
 553 .ad
 554 .RS 7n
 555 Invalid arguments.
 556 .RE
 558 .sp
 559 .ne 2
 560 .na
 561 \fB\fB64\fR\fR
 562 .ad
 563 .RS 7n
 564 Unable to access either or both of the specified \fBsrc\fR or \fBdst\fR
 565 directories.
 566 .RE
 568 .sp
 569 .ne 2
 570 .na
 571 \fB\fB128\fR\fR
 572 .ad
 573 .RS 7n
 574 Miscellaneous other failures.
 575 .RE
 577 .SH FILES
 578 .ne 2
 579 .na
 580 \fB\fB$HOME/.packingrules\fR\fR
 581 .ad
 582 .RS 24n
 583 list of files to be kept synchronized
 584 .RE
 586 .sp
 587 .ne 2
 588 .na
 589 \fB\fB$HOME/.filesync-base\fR\fR
 590 .ad
 591 .RS 24n
 592 baseline summary file
 593 .RE
 596 .LP
 597 \fBpackingrules\fR(4), \fBattributes\fR(5)