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  17 .Dd October 23, 2017
  18 .Dt MHD 7I
  19 .Os
  20 .Sh NAME
  21 .Nm mhd
  22 .Nd multihost disk control operations
  24 .In sys/mhd.h
  26 The
  27 .Nm
  28 .Xr ioctl 2
  29 control access rights of a multihost disk, using
  30 disk reservations on the disk device.
  31 .Pp
  32 The stability level of this interface (see
  33 .Xr attributes 5 )
  34 is evolving.
  35 As a result, the interface is subject to change and you should limit your use of
  36 it.
  37 .Pp
  38 The mhd ioctls fall into two major categories: (1) ioctls for non-shared
  39 multihost disks and (2) ioctls for shared multihost disks.
  40 .Pp
  41 One ioctl,
  43 is applicable to both non-shared and shared multihost disks.
  44 It is described after the first two categories.
  45 .Pp
  46 All the ioctls require root privilege.
  47 .Pp
  48 For all of the ioctls, the caller should obtain the file descriptor for the
  49 device by calling
  50 .Xr open 2
  51 with the
  52 .Dv O_NDELAY
  53 flag; without the
  54 .Dv O_NDELAY
  55 flag, the open may fail due to another host already having a
  56 conflicting reservation on the device.
  57 Some of the ioctls below permit the caller to forcibly clear a conflicting
  58 reservation held by another host, however, in order to call the ioctl, the
  59 caller must first obtain the open file descriptor.
  60 .Ss "Non-shared multihost disks"
  61 Non-shared multihost disks ioctls consist of
  65 and
  67 These ioctl requests control the access rights of non-shared multihost disks.
  68 A non-shared multihost disk is one that supports serialized, mutually exclusive
  69 I/O mastery by the connected hosts.
  70 This is in contrast to the shared-disk model, in which
  71 concurrent access is allowed from more than one host (see below).
  72 .Pp
  73 A non-shared multihost disk can be in one of two states:
  74 .Bl -bullet -width indent
  75 .It
  76 Exclusive access state, where only one connected host has I/O access
  77 .It
  78 Non-exclusive access state, where all connected hosts have I/O access.
  79 An external hardware reset can cause the disk to enter the non-exclusive access
  80 state.
  81 .El
  82 .Pp
  83 Each multihost disk driver views the machine on which it's running as the
  84 .Dq local host ;
  85 each views all other machines as
  86 .Dq remote hosts .
  87 For each I/O or ioctl request, the requesting host is the local host.
  88 .Pp
  89 Note that the non-shared ioctls are designed to work with SCSI-2 disks.
  90 The
  91 SCSI-2 RESERVE/RELEASE command set is the underlying hardware facility in the
  92 device that supports the non-shared ioctls.
  93 .Pp
  94 The function prototypes for the non-shared ioctls are:
  95 .Bd -literal -offset 2n
  96 .Fn ioctl fd MHIOCTKOWN ;
  97 .Fn ioctl fd MHIOCRELEASE ;
  98 .Fn ioctl fd MHIOCSTATUS ;
  99 .Fn ioctl fd MHIOCQRESERVE ;
 100 .Ed
 101 .Bl -tag -width MHIOCQRESERVE
 103 Forcefully acquires exclusive access rights to the multihost disk for the local
 104 host.
 105 Revokes all access rights to the multihost disk from remote hosts.
 106 Causes the disk to enter the exclusive access state.
 107 .Pp
 108 Implementation Note: Reservations (exclusive access rights) broken via random
 109 resets should be reinstated by the driver upon their detection, for example, in
 110 the automatic probe function described below.
 112 Relinquishes exclusive access rights to the multihost disk for the local host.
 113 On success, causes the disk to enter the non- exclusive access state.
 115 Probes a multihost disk to determine whether the local host has access rights
 116 to the disk.
 117 Returns
 118 .Sy 0
 119 if the local host has access to the disk,
 120 .Sy 1
 121 if it doesn't, and
 122 .Sy -1
 123 with
 124 .Va errno
 125 set to
 126 .Er EIO
 127 if the probe failed for some other reason.
 129 Issues, simply and only, a SCSI-2 Reserve command.
 130 If the attempt to reserve
 131 fails due to the SCSI error Reservation Conflict (which implies that some other
 132 host has the device reserved), then the ioctl will return
 133 .Sy -1
 134 with
 135 .Va errno
 136 set to
 137 .Er EACCES .
 138 The
 140 ioctl does NOT issue a bus device
 141 reset or bus reset prior to attempting the SCSI-2 reserve command.
 142 It also
 143 does not take care of re-instating reservations that disappear due to bus
 144 resets or bus device resets; if that behavior is desired, then the caller can
 145 call
 147 after the
 149 has returned success.
 150 If
 151 the device does not support the SCSI-2 Reserve command, then the ioctl returns
 152 .Er -1
 153 with
 154 .Va errno
 155 set to
 156 .Er ENOTSUP .
 157 The
 159 ioctl is intended to be used by high-availability or clustering software for a
 160 .Dq quorum
 161 disk, hence, the
 162 .Dq Q
 163 in the name of the ioctl.
 164 .El
 165 .Ss "Shared Multihost Disks"
 166 Shared multihost disks ioctls control access to shared multihost disks.
 167 The ioctls are merely a veneer on the SCSI-3 Persistent Reservation facility.
 168 Therefore, the underlying semantic model is not described in detail here, see
 169 instead the SCSI-3 standard.
 170 The SCSI-3 Persistent Reservations support the
 171 concept of a group of hosts all sharing access to a disk.
 172 .Pp
 173 The function prototypes and descriptions for the shared multihost ioctls are as
 174 follows:
 175 .Bl -tag -width 1n
 176 .It Fn ioctl fd MHIOCGRP_INKEYS "(mhioc_inkeys_t *)k"
 177 .Pp
 178 Issues the SCSI-3 command Persistent Reserve In Read Keys to the device.
 179 On input, the field
 180 .Fa k->li
 181 should be initialized by the caller with
 182 .Fa k->li.listsize
 183 reflecting how big of an array the caller has allocated for the
 184 .Fa k->lilist
 185 field and with
 186 .Ql k->li.listlen\& ==\& 0 .
 187 On return, the field
 188 .Fa k->li.listlen
 189 is updated to indicate the number of
 190 reservation keys the device currently has: if this value is larger than
 191 .Fa k->li.listsize
 192 then that indicates that the caller should have passed a bigger
 193 .Fa k->li.list
 194 array with a bigger
 195 .Fa k->li.listsize .
 196 The number of array elements actually written by the callee into
 197 .Fa k->li.list
 198 is the minimum of
 199 .Fa k->li.listlen
 200 and
 201 .Fa k->li.listsize .
 202 The field
 203 .Fa k->generation
 204 is updated with the generation information returned by the SCSI-3
 205 Read Keys query.
 206 If the device does not support SCSI-3 Persistent Reservations,
 207 then this ioctl returns
 208 .Sy -1
 209 with
 210 .Va errno
 211 set to
 212 .Er ENOTSUP .
 213 .It Fn ioctl fd MHIOCGRP_INRESV "(mhioc_inresvs_t *)r"
 214 .Pp
 215 Issues the SCSI-3 command Persistent Reserve In Read Reservations to the
 216 device.
 217 Remarks similar to
 219 apply to the array manipulation.
 220 If the device does not support SCSI-3 Persistent Reservations,
 221 then this ioctl returns
 222 .Sy -1
 223 with
 224 .Va errno
 225 set to
 226 .Er ENOTSUP .
 227 .It Fn ioctl fd MHIOCGRP_REGISTER "(mhioc_register_t *)r"
 228 .Pp
 229 Issues the SCSI-3 command Persistent Reserve Out Register.
 230 The fields of structure
 231 .Va r
 232 are all inputs; none of the fields are modified by the ioctl.
 233 The field
 234 .Fa r->aptpl
 235 should be set to true to specify that registrations
 236 and reservations should persist across device power failures, or to false to
 237 specify that registrations and reservations should be cleared upon device power
 238 failure; true is the recommended setting.
 239 The field
 240 .Fa r->oldkey
 241 is the key that the caller believes the device may already have for this host
 242 initiator; if the caller believes that that this host initiator is not already
 243 registered with this device, it should pass the special key of all zeros.
 244 To achieve the effect of unregistering with the device, the caller should pass
 245 its current key for the
 246 .Fa r->oldkey
 247 field and an
 248 .Fa r->newkey
 249 field containing the special key of all zeros.
 250 If the device returns the SCSI error code
 251 Reservation Conflict, this ioctl returns
 252 .Sy -1
 253 with
 254 .Va errno
 255 set to
 256 .Er EACCES .
 257 .It Fn ioctl fd MHIOCGRP_RESERVE "(mhioc_resv_desc_t *)r"
 258 .Pp
 259 Issues the SCSI-3 command Persistent Reserve Out Reserve.
 260 The fields of
 261 structure
 262 .Va r
 263 are all inputs; none of the fields are modified by the ioctl.
 264 If the device returns the SCSI error code Reservation Conflict, this ioctl
 265 returns
 266 .Sy -1
 267 with
 268 .Va errno
 269 set to
 270 .Er EACCES .
 271 .It Fn ioctl fd MHIOCGRP_PREEMPTANDABORT "(mhioc_preemptandabort_t *)r"
 272 .Pp
 273 Issues the SCSI-3 command Persistent Reserve Out Preempt-And-Abort.
 274 The fields
 275 of structure
 276 .Va r
 277 are all inputs; none of the fields are modified by the ioctl.
 278 The key of the victim host is specified by the field
 279 .Fa r->victim_key .
 280 The field
 281 .Fa r->resvdesc
 282 supplies the preempter's key and the reservation that it is requesting as part
 283 of the SCSI-3 Preempt-And-Abort command.
 284 If the device returns the SCSI error code
 285 Reservation Conflict, this ioctl returns
 286 .Sy -1
 287 with
 288 .Va errno
 289 set to
 290 .Er EACCES .
 291 .It Fn ioctl fd MHIOCGRP_PREEMPT "(mhioc_preemptandabort_t *)r"
 292 .Pp
 293 Similar to
 295 but instead issues the SCSI-3 command Persistent Reserve Out Preempt.
 296 (Note: This command is not implemented).
 297 .It Fn ioctl fd MHIOCGRP_CLEAR "(mhioc_resv_key_t *)r"
 298 Issues the SCSI-3 command Persistent Reserve Out Clear.
 299 The input parameter
 300 .Va r
 301 is the reservation key of the caller, which should have been already
 302 registered with the device, by an earlier call to
 304 .El
 305 .Pp
 306 For each device, the non-shared ioctls should not be mixed with the Persistent
 307 Reserve Out shared ioctls, and vice-versa,  otherwise, the underlying device is
 308 likely to return errors, because SCSI does not permit SCSI-2 reservations to be
 309 mixed with SCSI-3 reservations on a single device.
 310 It is, however, legitimate
 311 to call the Persistent Reserve In ioctls, because these are query only.
 312 Issuing the
 314 ioctl is the recommended way for a caller to
 315 determine if the device supports SCSI-3 Persistent Reservations (the ioctl
 316 will return
 317 .Sy -1
 318 with
 319 .Va errno
 320 set to
 321 .Er ENOTSUP
 322 if the device does not).
 324 The
 326 ioctl is applicable for both non-shared and shared
 327 disks, and may be used with either the non-shared or shared ioctls.
 328 .Bl -tag -width 1n
 329 .It Fn ioctl fd MHIOENFAILFAST "(unsigned int *)millisecs"
 330 .Pp
 331 Enables or disables the failfast option in the multihost disk driver and
 332 enables or disables automatic probing of a multihost disk, described below.
 333 The argument is an unsigned integer specifying the number of milliseconds to
 334 wait between executions of the automatic probe function.
 335 An argument of zero disables the failfast option and disables automatic probing.
 336 If the
 338 ioctl is never called, the effect is defined to be that
 339 both the failfast option and automatic probing are disabled.
 340 .El
 341 .Ss "Automatic Probing"
 342 The
 344 ioctl sets up a timeout in the driver to periodically
 345 schedule automatic probes of the disk.
 346 The automatic probe function works in this manner: The driver is scheduled to
 347 probe the multihost disk every n milliseconds, rounded up to the next integral
 348 multiple of the system clock's resolution.
 349 If
 350 .Bl -enum -offset indent
 351 .It
 352 the local host no longer has access rights to the multihost disk, and
 353 .It
 354 access rights were expected to be held by the local host,
 355 .El
 356 .Pp
 357 the driver immediately panics the machine to comply with the failfast model.
 358 .Pp
 359 If the driver makes this discovery outside the timeout function, especially
 360 during a read or write operation, it is imperative that it panic the system
 361 then as well.
 363 Each request returns
 364 .Sy -1
 365 on failure and sets
 366 .Va errno
 367 to indicate the error.
 368 .Bl -tag -width Er
 369 .It Er EPERM
 370 Caller is not root.
 371 .It Er EACCES
 372 Access rights were denied.
 373 .It Er EIO
 374 The multihost disk or controller was unable to successfully complete the
 375 requested operation.
 377 The multihost disk does not support the operation.
 378 For example, it does not support the SCSI-2 Reserve/Release command set, or the
 379 SCSI-3 Persistent Reservation command set.
 380 .El
 382 Uncommitted
 383 .Sh SEE ALSO
 384 .Xr ioctl 2 ,
 385 .Xr open 2 ,
 386 .Xr attributes 5