STRTOD(3C) Standard C Library Functions STRTOD(3C)

strtod, strtof, strtold, atof - convert string to floating-point number

#include <stdlib.h>
double strtod(const char *restrict nptr, char **restrict endptr);

float strtof(const char *restrict nptr, char **restrict endptr);

long double strtold(const char *restrict nptr, char **restrict endptr);

double atof(const char *str);

The strtod(), strtof(), and strtold() functions convert the initial portion of the string pointed to by nptr to double, float, and long double representation, respectively. First they decompose the input string into three parts:
An initial, possibly empty, sequence of white-space characters (as specified by isspace(3C))
A subject sequence interpreted as a floating-point constant or representing infinity or NaN
A final string of one or more unrecognized characters, including the terminating null byte of the input string.

Then they attempt to convert the subject sequence to a floating-point number, and return the result.

The expected form of the subject sequence is an optional plus or minus sign, then one of the following:

A non-empty sequence of digits optionally containing a radix character, then an optional exponent part
A 0x or 0X, then a non-empty sequence of hexadecimal digits optionally containing a radix character, then an optional binary exponent part
One of INF or INFINITY, ignoring case
One of NAN or NAN(n-char-sequence(opt)), ignoring case in the NAN part, where:

    n-char-sequence digit
    n-char-sequence nondigit

In default mode for strtod(), only decimal, INF/INFINITY, and NAN/NAN(n-char-sequence) forms are recognized. In C99/SUSv3 mode, hexadecimal strings are also recognized.

In default mode for strtod(), the n-char-sequence in the NAN(n-char-sequence) form can contain any character except ')' (right parenthesis) or '\0' (null). In C99/SUSv3 mode, the n-char-sequence can contain only upper and lower case letters, digits, and '_' (underscore).

The strtof() and strtold() functions always function in C99/SUSv3-conformant mode.

The subject sequence is defined as the longest initial subsequence of the input string, starting with the first non-white-space character, that is of the expected form. The subject sequence contains no characters if the input string is not of the expected form.

If the subject sequence has the expected form for a floating-point number, the sequence of characters starting with the first digit or the decimal-point character (whichever occurs first) is interpreted as a floating constant of the C language, except that the radix character is used in place of a period, and that if neither an exponent part nor a radix character appears in a decimal floating-point number, or if a binary exponent part does not appear in a hexadecimal floating-point number, an exponent part of the appropriate type with value zero is assumed to follow the last digit in the string. If the subject sequence begins with a minus sign, the sequence is interpreted as negated. A character sequence INF or INFINITY is interpreted as an infinity. A character sequence NAN or NAN(n-char-sequence(opt)) is interpreted as a quiet NaN. A pointer to the final string is stored in the object pointed to by endptr, provided that endptr is not a null pointer.

If the subject sequence has either the decimal or hexadecimal form, the value resulting from the conversion is rounded correctly according to the prevailing floating point rounding direction mode. The conversion also raises floating point inexact, underflow, or overflow exceptions as appropriate.

The radix character is defined in the program's locale (category LC_NUMERIC). In the POSIX locale, or in a locale where the radix character is not defined, the radix character defaults to a period ('.').

If the subject sequence is empty or does not have the expected form, no conversion is performed; the value of nptr is stored in the object pointed to by endptr, provided that endptr is not a null pointer.

The strtod() function does not change the setting of errno if successful.

The atof(str) function call is equivalent to strtod(nptr, (char **)NULL).

Upon successful completion, these functions return the converted value. If no conversion could be performed, 0 is returned.

If the correct value is outside the range of representable values, ±HUGE_VAL, ±HUGE_VALF, or ±HUGE_VALL is returned (according to the sign of the value), a floating point overflow exception is raised, and errno is set to ERANGE.

If the correct value would cause an underflow, the correctly rounded result (which may be normal, subnormal, or zero) is returned, a floating point underflow exception is raised, and errno is set to ERANGE.

These functions will fail if:


The value to be returned would cause overflow or underflow

These functions may fail if:


No conversion could be performed.

Since 0 is returned on error and is also a valid return on success, an application wishing to check for error situations should set errno to 0, then call strtod(), strtof(), or strtold(), then check errno.

The changes to strtod() introduced by the ISO/IEC 9899: 1999 standard can alter the behavior of well-formed applications complying with the ISO/IEC 9899: 1990 standard and thus earlier versions of IEEE Std 1003.1-200x. One such example would be:

what_kind_of_number (char *s)
     char *endp;
     double d;
     long l;
     d = strtod(s, &endp);
     if (s != endp && *endp == '\0')
         printf("It's a float with value %g\n", d);
         l = strtol(s, &endp, 0);
         if (s != endp && *endp == '\0')
             printf("It's an integer with value %ld\n", 1);
             return 1;
     return 0;

If the function is called with:

what_kind_of_number ("0x10")

an ISO/IEC 9899: 1990 standard-compliant library will result in the function printing:

It's an integer with value 16

With the ISO/IEC 9899: 1999 standard, the result is:

It's a float with value 16

The change in behavior is due to the inclusion of floating-point numbers in hexadecimal notation without requiring that either a decimal point or the binary exponent be present.

See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

CSI Enabled
Interface Stability Standard
MT-Level MT-Safe with exceptions

isspace(3C), localeconv(3C), scanf(3C), setlocale(3C), strtol(3C), attributes(5), standards(5)

The strtod() and atof() functions can be used safely in multithreaded applications, as long as setlocale(3C) is not called to change the locale.

The DESCRIPTION and RETURN VALUES sections above are very similar to the wording used by the Single UNIX Specification version 2 (SUSv2) and the 1989 C Standard to describe the behavior of the strtod() function. Since some users have reported that they find the description confusing, the following notes might be helpful.

The strtod() function does not modify the string pointed to by str and does not malloc() space to hold the decomposed portions of the input string.
If endptr is not (char **)NULL, strtod() will set the pointer pointed to by endptr to the first byte of the "final string of unrecognized characters". (If all input characters were processed, the pointer pointed to by endptr will be set to point to the null character at the end of the input string.)
If strtod() returns 0.0, one of the following occurred:
The "subject sequence" was not an empty string, but evaluated to 0.0. (In this case, errno will be left unchanged.)
The "subject sequence" was an empty string . In this case, errno will be left unchanged. (The Single UNIX Specification version 2 allows errno to be set to EINVAL or to be left unchanged. The C Standard does not specify any specific behavior in this case.)
The "subject sequence" specified a numeric value whose conversion resulted in a floating point underflow. In this case, an underflow exception is raised and errno is set to ERANGE.
Note that the standards do not require that implementations distinguish between these three cases. An application can determine case (b) by making sure that there are no leading white-space characters in the string pointed to by str and giving strtod() an endptr that is not (char **)NULL. If endptr points to the first character of str when strtod() returns, you have detected case (b). Case (c) can be detected by examining the underflow flag or by looking for a non-zero digit before the exponent part of the "subject sequence". Note, however, that the decimal-point character is locale-dependent.
If strtod() returns +HUGE_VAL or −HUGE_VAL, one of the following occurred:
If +HUGE_VAL is returned and errno is set to ERANGE, a floating point overflow occurred while processing a positive value, causing a floating point overflow exception to be raised.
If −HUGE_VAL is returned and errno is set to ERANGE, a floating point overflow occurred while processing a negative value, causing a floating point overflow exception to be raised.
If strtod() does not set errno to ERANGE, the value specified by the "subject string" converted to +HUGE_VAL or −HUGE_VAL, respectively.
Note that if errno is set to ERANGE when strtod() is called, case (c) can be distinguished from cases (a) and (b) by examining either ERANGE or the overflow flag.
August 25, 2019