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10911 dd: add input flag fullblock

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          --- old/usr/src/man/man1m/dd.1m.man.txt
          +++ new/usr/src/man/man1m/dd.1m.man.txt
   1    1  DD(1M)                       Maintenance Commands                       DD(1M)
   2    2  
   3      -
   4      -
   5    3  NAME
   6      -       dd - convert and copy a file
        4 +     dd - convert and copy a file
   7    5  
   8    6  SYNOPSIS
   9      -       /usr/bin/dd [operand=value]...
        7 +     /usr/bin/dd [operand=value] ...
  10    8  
  11      -
  12    9  DESCRIPTION
  13      -       The dd utility copies the specified input file to the specified output
  14      -       with possible conversions. The standard input and output are used by
  15      -       default.  The input and output block sizes may be specified to take
  16      -       advantage of raw physical I/O. Sizes are specified in bytes; a number
  17      -       may end with k, b, or w to specify multiplication by 1024, 512, or 2,
  18      -       respectively.  Numbers may also be separated by x to indicate
  19      -       multiplication.
       10 +     The dd utility copies the specified input file to the specified output
       11 +     with possible conversions.  The standard input and output are used by
       12 +     default.  The input and output block sizes may be specified to take
       13 +     advantage of raw physical I/O.  Sizes are specified in bytes; a number
       14 +     may end with k, b, or w to specify multiplication by 1024, 512, or 2,
       15 +     respectively.  Numbers may also be separated by x to indicate
       16 +     multiplication.
  20   17  
       18 +     The dd utility reads the input one block at a time, using the specified
       19 +     input block size.  dd then processes the block of data actually returned,
       20 +     which could be smaller than the requested block size unless the input
       21 +     flag fullblock is used.  dd applies any conversions that have been
       22 +     specified and writes the resulting data to the output in blocks of the
       23 +     specified output block size.
  21   24  
  22      -       The dd utility reads the input one block at a time, using the specified
  23      -       input block size. dd then processes the block of data actually
  24      -       returned, which could be smaller than the requested block size. dd
  25      -       applies any conversions that have been specified and writes the
  26      -       resulting data to the output in blocks of the specified output block
  27      -       size.
       25 +     cbs is used only if ascii, asciib, unblock, ebcdic, ebcdicb, ibm, ibmb,
       26 +     or block conversion is specified.  In the first two cases, cbs characters
       27 +     are copied into the conversion buffer, any specified character mapping is
       28 +     done, trailing blanks are trimmed, and a NEWLINE is added before sending
       29 +     the line to output.  In the last three cases, characters up to NEWLINE
       30 +     are read into the conversion buffer and blanks are added to make up an
       31 +     output record of size cbs.  ASCII files are presumed to contain NEWLINE
       32 +     characters.  If cbs is unspecified or 0, the ascii, asciib, ebcdic,
       33 +     ebcdicb, ibm, and ibmb options convert the character set without changing
       34 +     the input file's block structure.  The unblock and block options become a
       35 +     simple file copy.
  28   36  
       37 +     After completion, dd reports the number of whole and partial input and
       38 +     output blocks.
  29   39  
  30      -       cbs is used only if ascii, asciib, unblock, ebcdic, ebcdicb, ibm, ibmb,
  31      -       or block conversion is specified. In the first two cases, cbs
  32      -       characters are copied into the conversion buffer, any specified
  33      -       character mapping is done, trailing blanks are trimmed, and a NEWLINE
  34      -       is added before sending the line to output. In the last three cases,
  35      -       characters up to NEWLINE are read into the conversion buffer and blanks
  36      -       are added to make up an output record of size cbs.  ASCII files are
  37      -       presumed to contain NEWLINE characters. If cbs is unspecified or 0, the
  38      -       ascii, asciib, ebcdic, ebcdicb, ibm, and ibmb options convert the
  39      -       character set without changing the input file's block structure. The
  40      -       unblock and block options become a simple file copy.
  41      -
  42      -
  43      -       After completion, dd reports the number of whole and partial input and
  44      -       output blocks.
  45      -
  46   40  OPERANDS
  47      -       The following operands are supported:
       41 +     The following operands are supported:
  48   42  
  49      -       if=file
       43 +     if=file
  50   44  
  51      -           Specifies the input path. Standard input is the default.
       45 +             Specifies the input path.  Standard input is the default.
  52   46  
       47 +     of=file
  53   48  
  54      -       of=file
       49 +             Specifies the output path.  Standard output is the default.  If
       50 +             the seek=expr conversion is not also specified, the output file
       51 +             will be truncated before the copy begins, unless conv=notrunc is
       52 +             specified.  If seek=expr is specified, but conv=notrunc is not,
       53 +             the effect of the copy will be to preserve the blocks in the
       54 +             output file over which dd seeks, but no other portion of the
       55 +             output file will be preserved.  (If the size of the seek plus the
       56 +             size of the input file is less than the previous size of the
       57 +             output file, the output file is shortened by the copy.)
  55   58  
  56      -           Specifies the output path. Standard output is the default. If the
  57      -           seek=expr conversion is not also specified, the output file will be
  58      -           truncated before the copy begins, unless conv=notrunc is specified.
  59      -           If seek=expr is specified, but conv=notrunc is not, the effect of
  60      -           the copy will be to preserve the blocks in the output file over
  61      -           which dd seeks, but no other portion of the output file will be
  62      -           preserved. (If the size of the seek plus the size of the input file
  63      -           is less than the previous size of the output file, the output file
  64      -           is shortened by the copy.)
       59 +     ibs=n
  65   60  
       61 +             Specifies the input block size in n bytes (default is 512).
  66   62  
  67      -       ibs=n
       63 +     obs=n
  68   64  
  69      -           Specifies the input block size in n bytes (default is 512).
       65 +             Specifies the output block size in n bytes (default is 512).
  70   66  
       67 +     bs=n
  71   68  
  72      -       obs=n
       69 +             Sets both input and output block sizes to n bytes, superseding
       70 +             ibs= and obs=.  If no conversion other than sync, noerror, and
       71 +             notrunc is specified, each input block is copied to the output as
       72 +             a single block without aggregating short blocks.
  73   73  
  74      -           Specifies the output block size in n bytes (default is 512).
       74 +     cbs=n
  75   75  
       76 +             Specifies the conversion block size for block and unblock in
       77 +             bytes by n (default is 0). If cbs= is omitted or given a value of
       78 +             0, using block or unblock produces unspecified results.
  76   79  
  77      -       bs=n
       80 +             This option is used only if ASCII or EBCDIC conversion is
       81 +             specified.  For the ascii and asciib operands, the input is
       82 +             handled as described for the unblock operand except that
       83 +             characters are converted to ASCII before the trailing SPACE
       84 +             characters are deleted.  For the ebcdic, ebcdicb, ibm, and ibmb
       85 +             operands, the input is handled as described for the block operand
       86 +             except that the characters are converted to EBCDIC or IBM EBCDIC
       87 +             after the trailing SPACE characters are added.
  78   88  
  79      -           Sets both input and output block sizes to n bytes, superseding ibs=
  80      -           and obs=. If no conversion other than sync, noerror, and notrunc is
  81      -           specified, each input block is copied to the output as a single
  82      -           block without aggregating short blocks.
       89 +     files=n
  83   90  
       91 +             Copies and concatenates n input files before terminating (makes
       92 +             sense only where input is a magnetic tape or similar device).
  84   93  
  85      -       cbs=n
       94 +     skip=n
  86   95  
  87      -           Specifies the conversion block size for block and unblock in bytes
  88      -           by n (default is 0). If cbs= is omitted or given a value of 0,
  89      -           using block or unblock produces unspecified results.
       96 +             Skips n input blocks (using the specified input block size)
       97 +             before starting to copy.  On seekable files, the implementation
       98 +             reads the blocks or seeks past them.  On non-seekable files, the
       99 +             blocks are read and the data is discarded.
  90  100  
  91      -           This option is used only if ASCII or EBCDIC conversion is
  92      -           specified. For the ascii and asciib operands, the input is handled
  93      -           as described for the unblock operand except that characters are
  94      -           converted to ASCII before the trailing SPACE characters are
  95      -           deleted. For the ebcdic, ebcdicb, ibm, and ibmb operands, the input
  96      -           is handled as described for the block operand except that the
  97      -           characters are converted to EBCDIC or IBM EBCDIC after the trailing
  98      -           SPACE characters are added.
      101 +     iseek=n
  99  102  
      103 +             Seeks n blocks from beginning of input file before copying
      104 +             (appropriate for disk files, where skip can be incredibly slow).
 100  105  
 101      -       files=n
      106 +     oseek=n
 102  107  
 103      -           Copies and concatenates n input files before terminating (makes
 104      -           sense only where input is a magnetic tape or similar device).
      108 +             Seeks n blocks from beginning of output file before copying.
 105  109  
      110 +     seek=n
 106  111  
 107      -       skip=n
      112 +             Skips n blocks (using the specified output block size) from
      113 +             beginning of output file before copying.  On non-seekable files,
      114 +             existing blocks are read and space from the current end-of-file
      115 +             to the specified offset, if any, is filled with null bytes.  On
      116 +             seekable files, the implementation seeks to the specified offset
      117 +             or reads the blocks as described for non-seekable files.
 108  118  
 109      -           Skips n input blocks (using the specified input block size) before
 110      -           starting to copy. On seekable files, the implementation reads the
 111      -           blocks or seeks past them. On non-seekable files, the blocks are
 112      -           read and the data is discarded.
      119 +     ostride=n
 113  120  
      121 +             Writes every nth block (using the specified output block size)
      122 +             when writing output.  Skips n - 1 blocks after writing each
      123 +             record.
 114  124  
 115      -       iseek=n
      125 +     istride=n
 116  126  
 117      -           Seeks n blocks from beginning of input file before copying
 118      -           (appropriate for disk files, where skip can be incredibly slow).
      127 +             Reads every nth block (using the specified input block size) when
      128 +             reading input.  Skips n - 1 blocks after reading each record.
 119  129  
      130 +     stride=n
 120  131  
 121      -       oseek=n
      132 +             Reads every nth block (using the specified input block size) when
      133 +             reading input.  Skips n - 1 blocks after reading each record.
      134 +             Also writes every nth block (using the specified output block
      135 +             size) when writing output.  Skips n - 1 blocks after writing each
      136 +             record.
 122  137  
 123      -           Seeks n blocks from beginning of output file before copying.
      138 +     count=n
 124  139  
      140 +             Copies only n input blocks.
 125  141  
 126      -       seek=n
      142 +     conv=value[,value...]
 127  143  
 128      -           Skips n blocks (using the specified output block size) from
 129      -           beginning of output file before copying. On non-seekable files,
 130      -           existing blocks are read and space from the current end-of-file to
 131      -           the specified offset, if any, is filled with null bytes. On
 132      -           seekable files, the implementation seeks to the specified offset or
 133      -           reads the blocks as described for non-seekable files.
      144 +             Where values are comma-separated symbols from the following list:
 134  145  
      146 +             ascii   Converts EBCDIC to ASCII.
 135  147  
 136      -       ostride=n
 137  148  
 138      -           Writes every nth block (using the specified output block size) when
 139      -           writing output.  Skips n - 1 blocks after writing each record.
      149 +             asciib  Converts EBCDIC to ASCII using BSD-compatible character
      150 +                     translations.
 140  151  
      152 +             ebcdic  Converts ASCII to EBCDIC.  If converting fixed-length
      153 +                     ASCII records without NEWLINEs, sets up a pipeline with
      154 +                     dd conv=unblock beforehand.
 141  155  
 142      -       istride=n
      156 +             ebcdicb Converts ASCII to EBCDIC using BSD-compatible character
      157 +                     translations.  If converting fixed-length ASCII records
      158 +                     without NEWLINEs, sets up a pipeline with dd conv=unblock
      159 +                     beforehand.
 143  160  
 144      -           Reads every nth block (using the specified input block size) when
 145      -           reading input.  Skips n - 1 blocks after reading each record.
      161 +             ibm     Slightly different map of ASCII to EBCDIC.  If converting
      162 +                     fixed-length ASCII records without NEWLINEs, sets up a
      163 +                     pipeline with dd conv=unblock beforehand.
 146  164  
      165 +             ibmb    Slightly different map of ASCII to EBCDIC using
      166 +                     BSD-compatible character translations.  If converting
      167 +                     fixed-length ASCII records without NEWLINEs, sets up a
      168 +                     pipeline with dd conv=unblock beforehand.
 147  169  
 148      -       stride=n
      170 +             The ascii (or asciib ), ebcdic (or ebcdicb ), and ibm (or ibmb)
      171 +             values are mutually exclusive.
 149  172  
 150      -           Reads every nth block (using the specified input block size) when
 151      -           reading input.  Skips n - 1 blocks after reading each record.  Also
 152      -           writes every nth block (using the specified output block size) when
 153      -           writing output.  Skips n - 1 blocks after writing each record.
      173 +             block   Treats the input as a sequence of NEWLINE-terminated or
      174 +                     EOF-terminated variable-length records independent of the
      175 +                     input block boundaries.  Each record is converted to a
      176 +                     record with a fixed length specified by the conversion
      177 +                     block size.  Any NEWLINE character is removed from the
      178 +                     input line.  SPACE characters are appended to lines that
      179 +                     are shorter than their conversion block size to fill the
      180 +                     block.  Lines that are longer than the conversion block
      181 +                     size are truncated to the largest number of characters
      182 +                     that will fit into that size.  The number of truncated
      183 +                     lines is reported.
 154  184  
      185 +             unblock Converts fixed-length records to variable length.  Reads
      186 +                     a number of bytes equal to the conversion block size (or
      187 +                     the number of bytes remaining in the input, if less than
      188 +                     the conversion block size), delete all trailing SPACE
      189 +                     characters, and append a NEWLINE character.
 155  190  
 156      -       count=n
      191 +             The block and unblock values are mutually exclusive.
 157  192  
 158      -           Copies only n input blocks.
      193 +             lcase   Maps upper-case characters specified by the LC_CTYPE
      194 +                     keyword tolower to the corresponding lower-case
      195 +                     character.  Characters for which no mapping is specified
      196 +                     are not modified by this conversion.
 159  197  
      198 +             ucase   Maps lower-case characters specified by the LC_CTYPE
      199 +                     keyword toupper to the corresponding upper-case
      200 +                     character.  Characters for which no mapping is specified
      201 +                     are not modified by this conversion.
 160  202  
 161      -       conv=value[,value...]
      203 +             The lcase and ucase symbols are mutually exclusive.
 162  204  
 163      -           Where values are comma-separated symbols from the following list:
      205 +             swab    Swaps every pair of input bytes.  If the current input
      206 +                     record is an odd number of bytes, the last byte in the
      207 +                     input record is ignored.
 164  208  
 165      -           ascii
 166      -                      Converts EBCDIC to ASCII.
      209 +             noerror Does not stop processing on an input error.  When an
      210 +                     input error occurs, a diagnostic message is written on
      211 +                     standard error, followed by the current input and output
      212 +                     block counts in the same format as used at completion.
      213 +                     If the sync conversion is specified, the missing input is
      214 +                     replaced with null bytes and processed normally.
      215 +                     Otherwise, the input block will be omitted from the
      216 +                     output.
 167  217  
      218 +             notrunc Does not truncate the output file.  Preserves blocks in
      219 +                     the output file not explicitly written by this invocation
      220 +                     of dd.  (See also the preceding of=file operand.)
 168  221  
 169      -           asciib
 170      -                      Converts EBCDIC to ASCII using BSD-compatible character
 171      -                      translations.
      222 +             sync    Pads every input block to the size of the ibs= buffer,
      223 +                     appending null bytes.  (If either block or unblock is
      224 +                     also specified, appends SPACE characters, rather than
      225 +                     null bytes.)
 172  226  
      227 +     iflag=value[,value ...]
 173  228  
 174      -           ebcdic
 175      -                      Converts ASCII to EBCDIC. If converting fixed-length
 176      -                      ASCII records without NEWLINEs, sets up a pipeline with
 177      -                      dd conv=unblock beforehand.
      229 +             Where values are comma-separated symbols from the following list
      230 +             which affect the behavior of reading from the input file:
 178  231  
      232 +             fullblock Accumulate full blocks of input.
 179  233  
 180      -           ebcdicb
 181      -                      Converts ASCII to EBCDIC using BSD-compatible character
 182      -                      translations. If converting fixed-length ASCII records
 183      -                      without NEWLINEs, sets up a pipeline with dd
 184      -                      conv=unblock beforehand.
      234 +     oflag=value[,value ...]
 185  235  
      236 +             Where values are comma-separated symbols from the following list
      237 +             which affect the behavior of writing the output file:
 186  238  
 187      -           ibm
 188      -                      Slightly different map of ASCII to EBCDIC. If converting
 189      -                      fixed-length ASCII records without NEWLINEs, sets up a
 190      -                      pipeline with dd conv=unblock beforehand.
      239 +             dsync   The output file is opened with the O_DSYNC flag set.  All
      240 +                     data writes will be synchronous.  For more information on
      241 +                     O_DSYNC see fcntl.h(3HEAD).
 191  242  
      243 +             sync    The output file is opened with the O_SYNC.  All data and
      244 +                     metadata writes will be synchronous.  For more
      245 +                     information on O_SYNC see fcntl.h(3HEAD).
 192  246  
 193      -           ibmb
 194      -                      Slightly different map of ASCII to EBCDIC using
 195      -                      BSD-compatible character translations. If converting
 196      -                      fixed-length ASCII records without NEWLINEs, sets up a
 197      -                      pipeline with dd conv=unblock beforehand.
      247 +     If operands other than conv= and oflag= are specified more than once, the
      248 +     last specified operand=value is used.
 198  249  
 199      -           The ascii (or asciib), ebcdic (or ebcdicb), and ibm (or ibmb)
 200      -           values are mutually exclusive.
      250 +     For the bs=, cbs=, ibs=, and obs= operands, the application must supply
      251 +     an expression specifying a size in bytes.  The expression, expr, can be:
      252 +           1.   a positive decimal number
 201  253  
 202      -           block
 203      -                      Treats the input as a sequence of NEWLINE-terminated or
 204      -                      EOF-terminated variable-length records independent of
 205      -                      the input block boundaries. Each record is converted to
 206      -                      a record with a fixed length specified by the conversion
 207      -                      block size. Any NEWLINE character is removed from the
 208      -                      input line. SPACE characters are appended to lines that
 209      -                      are shorter than their conversion block size to fill the
 210      -                      block. Lines that are longer than the conversion block
 211      -                      size are truncated to the largest number of characters
 212      -                      that will fit into that size. The number of truncated
 213      -                      lines is reported.
      254 +           2.   a positive decimal number followed by k, specifying
      255 +                multiplication by 1024
 214  256  
      257 +           3.   a positive decimal number followed by M, specifying
      258 +                multiplication by 1024*1024
 215  259  
 216      -           unblock
 217      -                      Converts fixed-length records to variable length. Reads
 218      -                      a number of bytes equal to the conversion block size (or
 219      -                      the number of bytes remaining in the input, if less than
 220      -                      the conversion block size), delete all trailing SPACE
 221      -                      characters, and append a NEWLINE character.
      260 +           4.   a positive decimal number followed by G, specifying
      261 +                multiplication by 1024*1024*1024
 222  262  
 223      -           The  block and unblock values are mutually exclusive.
      263 +           5.   a positive decimal number followed by T, specifying
      264 +                multiplication by 1024*1024*1024*1024
 224  265  
 225      -           lcase
 226      -                    Maps upper-case characters specified by the LC_CTYPE
 227      -                    keyword tolower to the corresponding lower-case character.
 228      -                    Characters for which no mapping is specified are not
 229      -                    modified by this conversion.
      266 +           6.   a positive decimal number followed by P, specifying
      267 +                multiplication by 1024*1024*1024*1024*1024
 230  268  
      269 +           7.   a positive decimal number followed by E, specifying
      270 +                multiplication by 1024*1024*1024*1024*1024*1024
 231  271  
 232      -           ucase
 233      -                    Maps lower-case characters specified by the LC_CTYPE
 234      -                    keyword toupper to the corresponding upper-case character.
 235      -                    Characters for which no mapping is specified are not
 236      -                    modified by this conversion.
      272 +           8.   a positive decimal number followed by Z, specifying
      273 +                multiplication by 1024*1024*1024*1024*1024*1024*1024
 237  274  
 238      -           The lcase and ucase symbols are mutually exclusive.
      275 +           9.   a positive decimal number followed by b, specifying
      276 +                multiplication by 512
 239  277  
 240      -           swab
 241      -                      Swaps every pair of input bytes. If the current input
 242      -                      record is an odd number of bytes, the last byte in the
 243      -                      input record is ignored.
      278 +           10.  two or more positive decimal numbers (with or without k or b)
      279 +                separated by x, specifying the product of the indicated
      280 +                values.
 244  281  
      282 +     All of the operands will be processed before any input is read.
 245  283  
 246      -           noerror
 247      -                      Does not stop processing on an input error. When an
 248      -                      input error occurs, a diagnostic message is written on
 249      -                      standard error, followed by the current input and output
 250      -                      block counts in the same format as used at completion.
 251      -                      If the sync conversion is specified, the missing input
 252      -                      is replaced with null bytes and processed normally.
 253      -                      Otherwise, the input block will be omitted from the
 254      -                      output.
 255      -
 256      -
 257      -           notrunc
 258      -                      Does not truncate the output file. Preserves blocks in
 259      -                      the output file not explicitly written by this
 260      -                      invocation of dd. (See also the preceding of=file
 261      -                      operand.)
 262      -
 263      -
 264      -           sync
 265      -                      Pads every input block to the size of the ibs= buffer,
 266      -                      appending null bytes. (If either block or unblock is
 267      -                      also specified, appends SPACE characters, rather than
 268      -                      null bytes.)
 269      -
 270      -
 271      -
 272      -       oflag=value[,value...]
 273      -
 274      -       Where values are comma-separated symbols from the following list which
 275      -       affect the behavior of writing the output file:
 276      -
 277      -       dsync
 278      -                  The output file is opened with the O_DSYNC flag set. All
 279      -                  data writes will be synchronous. For more information on
 280      -                  O_DSYNC see fcntl.h(3HEAD).
 281      -
 282      -
 283      -       sync
 284      -                  The output file is opened with the O_SYNC flag set. All data
 285      -                  and metadata writes will be synchronous. For more
 286      -                  information on O_SYNC see fcntl.h(3HEAD).
 287      -
 288      -
 289      -
 290      -       If operands other than conv= and oflag= are specified more than once,
 291      -       the last specified operand=value is used.
 292      -
 293      -
 294      -       For the bs=, cbs=, ibs=, and obs= operands, the application must supply
 295      -       an expression specifying a size in bytes. The expression, expr, can be:
 296      -
 297      -           1.     a positive decimal number
 298      -
 299      -           2.     a positive decimal number followed by k, specifying
 300      -                  multiplication by 1024
 301      -
 302      -           3.     a positive decimal number followed by M, specifying
 303      -                  multiplication by 1024*1024
 304      -
 305      -           4.     a positive decimal number followed by G, specifying
 306      -                  multiplication by 1024*1024*1024
 307      -
 308      -           5.     a positive decimal number followed by T, specifying
 309      -                  multiplication by 1024*1024*1024*1024
 310      -
 311      -           6.     a positive decimal number followed by P, specifying
 312      -                  multiplication by 1024*1024*1024*1024*1024
 313      -
 314      -           7.     a positive decimal number followed by E, specifying
 315      -                  multiplication by 1024*1024*1024*1024*1024*1024
 316      -
 317      -           8.     a positive decimal number followed by Z, specifying
 318      -                  multiplication by 1024*1024*1024*1024*1024*1024*1024
 319      -
 320      -           9.     a positive decimal number followed by b, specifying
 321      -                  multiplication by 512
 322      -
 323      -           10.    two or more positive decimal numbers (with or without k or
 324      -                  b) separated by x, specifying the product of the indicated
 325      -                  values.
 326      -
 327      -
 328      -       All of the operands will be processed before any input is read.
 329      -
 330  284  SIGNALS
 331      -       When dd receives either SIGINFO or SIGUSR1, dd will emit the current
 332      -       input and output block counts, total bytes written, total time elapsed,
 333      -       and the number of bytes per second to standard error. This is the same
 334      -       information format that dd emits when it successfully completes. Users
 335      -       may send SIGINFO via their terminal. The default character is ^T, see
 336      -       stty(1) for more information.
      285 +     When dd receives either SIGINFO or SIGUSR1, dd will emit the current
      286 +     input and output block counts, total bytes written, total time elapsed,
      287 +     and the number of bytes per second to standard error.  This is the same
      288 +     information format that dd emits when it successfully completes.  Users
      289 +     may send SIGINFO via their terminal.  The default character is ^T, see
      290 +     stty(1) for more information.
 337  291  
      292 +     For SIGINT, dd writes status information to standard error before
      293 +     exiting.  dd takes the standard action for all other signals.
 338  294  
 339      -       For SIGINT, dd writes status information to standard error before
 340      -       exiting. dd takes the standard action for all other signals.
 341      -
 342      -
 343  295  USAGE
 344      -       See largefile(5) for the description of the behavior of dd when
 345      -       encountering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2^31 bytes).
      296 +     See largefile(5) for the description of the behavior of dd when
      297 +     encountering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte (2^31 bytes).
 346  298  
 347      -EXAMPLES
 348      -       Example 1 Copying from one tape drive to another
      299 +EXIT STATUS
      300 +     The following exit values are returned:
 349  301  
      302 +     0       The input file was copied successfully.
 350  303  
 351      -       The following example copies from tape drive 0 to tape drive 1, using a
 352      -       common historical device naming convention.
      304 +     >0      An error occurred.
 353  305  
      306 +     If an input error is detected and the noerror conversion has not been
      307 +     specified, any partial output block will be written to the output file, a
      308 +     diagnostic message will be written, and the copy operation will be
      309 +     discontinued.  If some other error is detected, a diagnostic message will
      310 +     be written and the copy operation will be discontinued.
 354  311  
 355      -         example% dd if=/dev/rmt/0h  of=/dev/rmt/1h
      312 +EXAMPLES
      313 +     Example 1 Copying from one tape drive to another
 356  314  
      315 +     The following example copies from tape drive 0 to tape drive 1, using a
      316 +     common historical device naming convention.
 357  317  
      318 +           % dd if=/dev/rmt/0h of=/dev/rmt/1h
 358  319  
 359      -       Example 2 Stripping the first 10 bytes from standard input
      320 +     Example 2 Stripping the first 10 bytes from standard input
 360  321  
      322 +     The following example strips the first 10 bytes from standard input:
 361  323  
 362      -       The following example strips the first 10 bytes from standard input:
      324 +           % dd ibs=10 skip=1
 363  325  
      326 +     Example 3 Reading a tape into an ASCII file
 364  327  
 365      -         example% dd ibs=10  skip=1
      328 +     This example reads an EBCDIC tape blocked ten 80-byte EBCDIC card images
      329 +     per block into the ASCII file x:
 366  330  
      331 +           % dd if=/dev/tape of=x ibs=800 cbs=80 conv=ascii,lcase
 367  332  
      333 +     Example 4 Using conv=sync to write to tape
 368  334  
 369      -       Example 3 Reading a tape into an ASCII file
      335 +     The following example uses conv=sync when writing to a tape:
 370  336  
      337 +           % tar cvf -. | compress | dd obs=1024k of=/dev/rmt/0 conv=sync
 371  338  
 372      -       This example reads an EBCDIC tape blocked ten 80-byte EBCDIC card
 373      -       images per block into the ASCII file x:
      339 +DIAGNOSTICS
      340 +     f+p records in(out) numbers of full and partial blocks read(written)
 374  341  
 375      -
 376      -         example% dd if=/dev/tape of=x ibs=800 cbs=80 conv=ascii,lcase
 377      -
 378      -
 379      -
 380      -       Example 4 Using conv=sync to write to tape
 381      -
 382      -
 383      -       The following example uses conv=sync when writing to a tape:
 384      -
 385      -
 386      -         example% tar cvf - . | compress | dd obs=1024k of=/dev/rmt/0 conv=sync
 387      -
 388      -
 389      -
 390  342  ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
 391      -       See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment variables
 392      -       that affect the execution of dd: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES,
 393      -       and NLSPATH.
      343 +     See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment variables
      344 +     that affect the execution of dd: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, and
      345 +     NLSPATH.
 394  346  
 395      -EXIT STATUS
 396      -       The following exit values are returned:
      347 +INTERFACE STABILITY
      348 +     Standard
 397  349  
 398      -       0
 399      -             The input file was copied successfully.
 400      -
 401      -
 402      -       >0
 403      -             An error occurred.
 404      -
 405      -
 406      -
 407      -       If an input error is detected and the noerror conversion has not been
 408      -       specified, any partial output block will be written to the output file,
 409      -       a diagnostic message will be written, and the copy operation will be
 410      -       discontinued. If some other error is detected, a diagnostic message
 411      -       will be written and the copy operation will be discontinued.
 412      -
 413      -ATTRIBUTES
 414      -       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:
 415      -
 416      -
 417      -
 418      -
 419      -       +--------------------+-----------------+
 420      -       |  ATTRIBUTE TYPE    | ATTRIBUTE VALUE |
 421      -       +--------------------+-----------------+
 422      -       |Interface Stability | Standard        |
 423      -       +--------------------+-----------------+
 424      -
 425  350  SEE ALSO
 426      -       cp(1), sed(1), tr(1), fcntl.h(3HEAD), attributes(5), environ(5),
 427      -       largefile(5), standards(5)
      351 +     cp(1), sed(1), tr(1), fcntl.h(3HEAD), attributes(5), environ(5),
      352 +     largefile(5), standards(5)
 428  353  
 429      -DIAGNOSTICS
 430      -       f+p records in(out)
 431      -                              numbers of full and partial blocks read(written)
 432      -
 433      -
 434  354  NOTES
 435      -       Do not use dd to copy files between file systems having different block
 436      -       sizes.
      355 +     Do not use dd to copy files between file systems having different block
      356 +     sizes.
 437  357  
      358 +     Using a  blocked device to copy a file will result in extra nulls being
      359 +     added to the file to pad the final block to the block boundary.
 438  360  
 439      -       Using a  blocked device to copy a file will result in extra nulls being
 440      -       added to the file to pad the final block to the block boundary.
      361 +     When dd reads from a pipe, using the ibs=X and obs=Y operands, the output
      362 +     will always be blocked in chunks of size Y.  When bs=Z is used, the
      363 +     output blocks will be whatever was available to be read from the pipe at
      364 +     the time.
 441  365  
      366 +     When using dd to copy files to a tape device, the file size must be a
      367 +     multiple of the device sector size (for example, 512 Kbyte).  To copy
      368 +     files of arbitrary size to a tape device, use tar(1) or cpio(1).
 442  369  
 443      -       When  dd reads from a pipe, using the  ibs=X and  obs=Y operands, the
 444      -       output will always be blocked in chunks of size Y. When bs=Z is used,
 445      -       the output blocks will be whatever was available to be read from the
 446      -       pipe at the time.
 447      -
 448      -
 449      -       When using dd to copy files to a tape device, the file size must be a
 450      -       multiple of the device sector size (for example, 512 Kbyte).  To  copy
 451      -       files of arbitrary size to a tape device, use  tar(1) or  cpio(1).
 452      -
 453      -
 454      -
 455      -                               December 12, 2014                        DD(1M)
      370 +illumos                           May 4, 2019                          illumos
    
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